Vedangas

Vedangas are Limbs of Vedas

Rig Veda is not complete unless it is studied with its Appendices called as Vedangas. Vedangas help us read, write, chant and understand Veda mantras, that is, vedic hymns (Slokas). Vedangas are called as Limbs of Vedas.

Shadangas

Vedangas are also called as Shadangas because they are Six in number, viz., Siksa,Vyakarana, Chandas, Nirukta, Kalpa and Jyotisa texts.

Siksha

Siksha deals with mainly phonetics and it is the science disciplining the efforts of ear, vocal cords, etc. Most popular and authentic literature on Siksha comes from Sage Panini. He expouded the theory, practice and learning of pedagogy of Sanskrit language.

Vyakarana

Vyakarana is grammar of Sanskritic slokas and it deals with forms of words, their combination, usage and semantic nuances.

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Hanuman

Brahmavarta

Aryanism

Saraswati river

Nirukta

Nirukta deals with etymology dealing with objective definition and contextual meaning of words.

ChandaHs

Chandahs is  the science for determination of metrical forms and qualities of mantras.

Kalpa deals with and justifies Vedic Hindu yajna and yagas rituals.

Jyotisha is study of the Universe,i.e.,astrology or  astronomy to determine the configuration and position of stars and planets etc., in order to fix favourable or propitious times for performing Yagas or Hindu rituals and for.

 Vyakarana and Nirukta are unique to each Veda. Whereas Siksha, Chandas, Kalpa and Jyotisa are common  for all Vedas.

Then there are Mimamsa, Nyaya, Purana and Dharma sastras.

Mimamsa is divided into Purva Mimamsa and Uttara mimamsa. First one deals with conduction of Vedic rutuals. Uttara mimamsa helps us understand Vedanta knowledge.

Nyaya sastra is also called Tarka Sastra.

Nyaya sastra teaches us the logical determination of nature and qualities of matter and standards of Judgements and assessment of Values and promotes one to attain Moksha. Manu dharma sastra, Yajnavalkya smruti, Mitakshari, Datta Mimamsa etc are some of the prominent dharma sastras. Commentaries by Medhatiti, Govindaraja, Kallukabhatta are available to read Manu Smriti.

Upanishads

Traditionally Ten Upanishads are attached to Rig Veda and they are: Akshamala, Atmabodha, Bahvracha,  Kaushitaki, Mudgala, Nadabindu, Nirvana, Saubhagyalakshmi, Tripura , Aitareya. There are 19  Upanishads belonging to Sukla Yajur Veda and they are: Yajnavalkya,  Adhyatma, Advayataraka,  Bhikshuka ,Brahadaranyaka,  Hamsa,  Jabala Mandalabrahmana , Mantrika,  Muktika , Niralamba, Paingala, ParamaHamsa,  Satyayani,  Subala,  Tarasara,  Trisikhibrahmana,  Turiyatita,  Isavasya.

There are 32 Upanishads belonging to the Krishna Yajur Veda and they are: Akshi,  Amritabindhu, Amritanada ,Avadhuta,  Brahma , Brahmavidya,  Dakshinamurti,  Dhyanabindhu , Ekakshara,  Garbha,  Kaivalya,  Kalagnirudra, Kalisantarana,  Katharudra,  Kshurika , Panchabrahma,  Narayana , Pranaagnihotra , Rudrahrudhaya,  Sarasvatirahasya,  Sariraka Svetasvatara,  Sarvasara,  Skanda,  Taittiriya , Sukharahasya,  Tejobindhu,  Yogasikha, Yogakundalini,  Varaha,  Katha,  Yogatattva

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And there are 31 Upanishads belonging to the Atharva Veda and they are : Narada Parivrajaka , Annapurna , Atharvasikha , Atharvasira,  Atma , Bhasmajabala , Bhavana , Brahajjabala , Dattatreya , Devi , Ganapati,  Garuda, Gopalatapini , Hayagriva , Krishna, Maandukya, Mahavakhya, Mundaka, Nrsimhatapini, Parabrahma, Paramahamsaparivrajaka, , Pasupatabrahma, Ramarahasya, Ramatapini, Sandilya, Sarabha, Sita, Surya, Tribadvibhutimahanarayana, Tripuratapini,  Prasna.

Brahmanas

Aitareya Brahmana (Ashvalayana Brahmana) AND Kaushitaki Brahmana (  Śāṅkhāyana Brahmana) belong to Rig Veda. Maitrayani Samhita, Katha Samhita, Kapisthalakatha Samhita, Taittiriya Samhita,Shatapatha Brahmana ,etc., are Brahmanas belonging to Yajur Veda.

Tandya Mahabrahmana (Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa), Sadvimsha Brahmana, Samavidhana Brahmana, Arsheya Brahmana, Devatadhyaya (Daivata Brahmana), Chandogya Brahmana, Samhitopanishad Brahmana, Vamsa Brahmana, Jaiminiya Brahmana, Jaiminiya Arsheya Brahmana, Talavakara Upanishad Brahmana are all belong to Sama Veda.

Where as Gopatha Brahmana belong to Atharva Veda.

Aranyakas

Aranyakas like Brahmanas deal with performance of rituals in Vedic sacrifices.Aitareya Aranyaka, Kaushitaki Aranyaka , Shankhayana, Aranyaka belong to Rigveda. Taittiriya Aranyaka, Maitrayaniya Aranyaka, Katha Aranyaka, Brihad Aranyaka, Madhyandina, belong to Yajur Veda.

Puranas

A Purana in general will have five characteristics called Pancha Lakshana and they are:, sarga, pratisarga, vamsa, manvantara and Vamsa charitam.

1.  Sarga: the creation of the universe.

2.  Pratisarga: secondary creations, mostly recreations after dissolution.

3.  Vamśa: genealogy of the gods and sages.

4.  Manvañtara: the creation of the human race and the first human beings. The epoch of the Manus’ rule, 71 celestial Yugas or 308,448,000 years.

5.  Vamśānucaritam: the histories of the patriarchs of the lunar and solar dynasties.

There are 18 mazor Puranas. Then Puranas are catergorised into three folds: One Vaishnava, Two Saiva and the three Brahma Puranas.Vaiṣṇava Puranas:Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata Purana, Nāradeya Purana, Garuda Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana, Vāmana Purana,Kūrma Purana, Matsya Purana, Kalki Purana

Brāhma Puranas:

Brahma Purana, Brahmānda Purana, Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Mārkandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana,

Śaiva Puranas:

Shiva Purana, Linga Purana, Skanda Purana, Agni Purana, Vāyu Purana.

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