Jyotish shastra Jyothisham
Astrology is called as Jyotish shastra in Sanskrit. It can be rightly called as Hindu Astrology. And architecture and civil engineering are dealt with in Vastu sashtra. Vastu Shastra is one of the organs of Jyotish shastra.
And as per Indian astrology there are nine planets, 12 zodiac signs, and 27 moon based Stars. All these aspects influence one’s Janam Kundli. All these entities are said to have their cosmic influence on the lives of human beings.This is called Jyotishya sastra.( When we include star Abhijit total number of stars becomes 28 ). Nine planets are Budha ( Mercury ), Shukra ( Venus ), Kuja ( Mars ), Bruhastpati ( Jupiter ), Sani ( Saturn ), Ravi ( Sun ), Chandra ( Moon ), Rahu and Ketu. In India three Kinds of Astrological charts are in use.
These three are one Barhaspatya manam, two Chandra Manam, and three Surya manam.
To mention a few, Surya manam is used by Tamils and Maharashtrians, Chandra Mana is used by Telugu people and Barhaspatya mana and Chandra Mana are used by North Indians.
There are 12 Rashis, Zodiac signs starting from Mesha. They are Mesha, Vrishabha, Mithuna, Karkataka, Simha, Kanya, Tula, Vrischika, Dhanus, Makara, Kumbha, and lastly Meena.
Ruling planets of these Rashis respectively are : Kuja ( Mars ), Venus ( Sukra ), Budha ( Mercury ), Chandra ( Moon ), Ravi ( Sun ), Budha (Mercury ), Venus ( Sukra ), Kuja ( Mars ), Bruhaspati ( Jupiter ), Sani ( Saturn ), Sani ( Saturn ) and Bruhaspati ( Jupiter )
These zodiac signs and ruling planets are similar to Greek zodiac signs. It is well known that each zodiac occupies 30 degrees space in total 360 degrees.
Unique to Indian astrology is naming of groups of Stars totaling 27.
Each star occupying 13 degrees 20 minutes. And each star is divided into 4 quarters each quarter taking 3 degrees 20 minutes in the astronomical circle of 360 degrees.
A Star is a group of Stars in fact and not a single star. Each Zodiac or Rashi is occupied by 9 quarters of stars. For example first Rashi of Mars or Mesha will have Asvini ‘s 4 quarters, Bharani’s 4 quarters and one quarter of Kruttika.
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These 27 stars are :
There are 27 Stars, actually 27 cluster of Stars based on lunar positioning in Indian Astrology. They are Asvini, BharaNi, Kruttika, RohiNi, Mrugasira, Aarudra, Punarvasu, Pushyami, Ashlesha, Magha, Purva phalguni, Uttara phalguni, Hasta, Chitta, Swati, Vishakha, Anuradha, JyeShta, Mula, Purvashadah, Uttarashadah, SravaNa, DhaniShta, Satataara, Poorvabhadra, Uttarabhadra and lastly Revati.
Sun or Ravi completes his travel of 12 Rashis in 12 months. Whereas Moon or Chandra runs a Rashi in about 2 and 1/2 days. So that the Moon completes his travel of 12 Rashis in about 30 days. And moon encircles the Zodiac 12 times in a year.
Months are divided into 12 and they are : Chaitra, Vaishaakha, Jyeshta,Ashadah, Sravana, Bhaadrapada, Aswayija, Kaartika, Margasira, Pousha, Maagha, Phalguna.
Division of Months in Indian astrology is more scientific when compared to others. Each month is named after 12 Stars among the 27 stars enumerated above.
For example, Lunar month starts from Chaitra masa. In Chaitra masa Moon enters Star Chitra on full moon day ( Pournami ). In the month of Vaishakham moon will dwell in the Star Vishakha on full moon day of that month and so on.
A day is divided into day and night which are called Aho and Ratra respectively. Thus one Ahoratra is a full day including night. Day is divided into 30 ghadiyas and one night is divided into another 30 ghadiyas. Thus 60 ghadiyas ( 24 hours ) make one full day. So that 24 minutes make one Ghadiya.
Seven days make one Vara or a week. Days are also called Varas. Sun day is Adi vara. Mon day is Soma vara. Tues day is Mangala vara. Wednesday is called Budhavara. Thursday is called Guru vara. Friday is called Sukra vara. Saturday is called Sanivara.
Four weeks make one month.
Another division of a month is made according Tidhis. Every day of lunar month is called tithi. There are 30 tidhis in a month not of equal time period. One tidhi is approximately 60 ghadiyas. Time for this tidhi varies regularly and not constant.
Full moon day and No moon days are called Pournami and Amaavasya respectively. These are two tidhis in a month. Other 28 ( 14 x 2 ) tidhis are Padyami, Vidiya, Tadiya, Chaviti, Panchami, Shashti, Saptami, Ashtahami, Navami, Dasami, Ekadasi, Dwadasi, Trayodasi, Chaturdasi – these fourteen tidhis repeat two times in a month and consume 28 days of a month.If we add Amavasya and Pournami tidhis to this number 28 then total works out to 30 tidhis.
A month is divided further into two pakshas ( fortnights ). These 2 sets of same 14 tidhis from Padyami to Chaturdasi spread before Pournami and after pournami repeatedly for two times. That is days in a month start form Padyami and end with Amaavasya. First 15 Days commencing from Padyami and upto Pournami are called Krishna Paksha ( waxing period of the Moon ). Then 15 days starting from Padyami after Pournami and ending with Amavasya are called Sukla Paksha ( waning of the moon ) with which a month ends.
Generally 9 tidhis or days including Pournami coming either side of Pournami that is tidhis from Krishna paksha Dasami to Sukla paksha Panchami are considered auspicious.
And 9 tidhis commencing from Sukla paksha Ekadasi to Krishna paksha Chaviti are considered inauspicious tidhis.